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Ahmad Bin Ali al-Maqrizi al-Shafi'i (d. 845H) on Tawhid, Shirk, Rububiyyah, Uluhiyyah, Shafaa'ah
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He is Ahmad bin Ali al-Maqrizi al-Misree al-Shafi'i (d. 845H), he was first upon the madhhab of Abu Hanifah (rahimahullaah), following his maternal grandfather in that, then he became a Shafi'ite at the age of twenty, when his father died, and he heard and took knowledge from al-Siraaj al-Balqini, al-Haythami, Zayn al-Din al-Iraqi, al-Tanukhi and others who were from the scholars of Shaam and Makkah.

The intent in this article is to indicate the futility and falsehood of the allegations or arch-liars such as Ahmad Dahlan who claimed that distinguishing between Allah's Rububiyyah and Uluhiyyah, and rejecting the solicitation of intercession from the righteous dead through calling upon them and what is like that is a Wahhabite innovation. Al-Maqrizi preceded Shaykh Ibn Abd al-Wahhaab by 250 years, indicating that Ibn Abd al-Wahhaab brought nothing new from himself. Al-Maqrizi wrote a book called Tajreed al-Tawhid al-Mufeed, "Laying Bare the Beneficial Tawhid" (Dar Umar bin al-Khattaab, Cairo, 1428H). The book as a whole is an excellent short treatise, it is a shame not to be able to translate it all, but we only have time to extract the relevant parts from the opening passages by which arch-liars such as Ahmad Dahlan and others are exposed for the intellectual and academic fraudsters they surely were when they used intellectual terrorism against the masses to warn them from the reform movement of Ibn Abd al-Wahhaab and his followers by lying about what he was calling to.

Al-Maqrizi on Distinguishing Between Rubiyyah and Uluhiyyah

Al-Maqrizi wrote, writing about the reality of the tawhid of the Prophets and Messengers (titles in square brackets are ours to highlight the points being made by al-Maqrizi):

اعلم أن الله سبحانه رب كل شيء ومالكه وإلههُ : فالرب مصدر ربّ يرَبُّ ربّاً فهو رابٌّ : فمعنى قوله تعالى {رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ} رابِّ العالمين ، فإن الرب سبحانه وتعالى هو الخالق الموجد لعباده ، القائم بتربيتهم وإصلاحهم من خَلقٍ ورزقٍ وعافية وإصلاح دين ودنيا . والإلهية كون العباد يتخذونه سبحانه محبوباً مألوهاً ويفردونه بالحب والخوف والرجاء والإخبات والتوبة والنذر والطاعة والطلب والتوكل ، ونحو هذه الأشياء

Know that Allaah, the Sublime is the Rabb (Lord) of everything, its Maalik (Owner, Master) and Deity (Ilaah). [Regarding the meaning of al-Rabb]. Al-Rabb is the verbal noun of rabba (to nurture), yarabbu rabban (he nurtured a nurturing) hence he is raabb (the one who nurtures). So the meaning of His, the Exalted's saying, "The Lord (Rabb) of all the Worlds" is that he is the Raabb of all the worlds, for the Lord, the Sublime and Exalted is the Creator, Originator of His servants, the one who nurtures them and rectifies them through creation, provision, good health, and rectifying their religious and wordly (lives). [Regarding the meaning of Ilaayhiyyah]. And Ilaahiyyah is when the servants take Him, the Sublime, as the beloved, worshipped, and they single Him out with love, fear, hope, humility, repentance, making oath, obedience, making request (through supplication), reliance and the likes of these things.

A little later he says:

ولباب التوحيد أن يرى الأمور كلها لله تعالى ، ثم يقطع الالتفاف إلى الوسائط وأن يعبده سبحانه عبادة يفرده بها ولا يعبد غيره

And the essential core of tawhid (Monotheism) is that (a person) considers all things to be within Allaah the Exalted's control and thereafter to cut off turning to intermediaries, and to worship Him, the Sublime, with worship that He is singled out with, and that he does not worship others...

And shortly after al-Maqrizi writes:

ولا ريب أن توحيد الربوبية لم ينكره المشركون ، بل أقروا بأنه سبحانه وحده خالقهم وخالق السماوات والأرض ، والقائم بمصالح العالم كله ، وإنما أنكروا توحيد الإلهية والمحبة كما قد حكى الله تعالى عنهم في قوله {ومن الناس من يتخذ من دون الله أندادا يحبونهم كحب الله والذين آمنوا أشد حبا لله} . فلما سووا غيره به في هذا التوحيد كانوا مشركين كما قال الله تعالى {الحمد لله الذي خلق السماوات والأرض وجعل الظلمات والنور ثم الذين كفروا بربهم يعدلون} .

[Tawhid al-Rububiyyah Must Be Accompanied by tawhid al-Uluhiyyah]. And there is no doubt that the Mushriks did not reject tawhid al-Rububiyyah. Rather they affirmed that He alone, the Sublime, is their creator, and the creator of the heavens and earth, and the one who looks after the affairs of all of the universe. But they rejected tawhid al-Ilaahiyyah wal-Mahabbah, just as Allaah, the Exalted, stated about them, "And amongst mankind are those who take rivals (in worship) besides Allaah, loving them with the love only due to Allaah. But those who believe are most severe in their love of Allaah" (2:165). So when they equated others besides Him in this tawhid, they became Mushriks, justs as Allaah, the Exalted said, "All praise is due to Allaah who created the heavens and earth and made the darknesses and the light. But then those who disbelieve, turn away from their Lord (to other deities)." (6:1)

And later he says:

فلا وليَّ ولا حَكَمَ ولا رب إلا الله الذي من عَدَلَ به غيره فقد أشرك في ألوهيتهِ، ولو وحد ربوبيته ، فتوحيد الربوبية هو الذي اجتمعت فيه الخلائق ، مؤمنها وكافرها ، وتوحيد الألوهية مفرق الطرق بين المؤمنين والمشركين

Thus there is no protecter, judge, or lord except Allaah, the one whom if a person turned to another besides Him would have associated a partner with Him in His Uluhiyyah (right to be worshipped alone), even if he singled Him out in Rububiyyah. For tawhid al-Rububiyyah is that which the entire creation, the believers and disbelievers amongst them, are agreed upon. It is tawhid al-Uluhiyyah which separates the path between the believers and the mushriks...

And after this he says:

وبهذا الاعتبار الذي قررنا به الإله ، وأنه المحبوب لاجتماع صفات االكمال فيه كان الله هو الاسم الجامع لجميع معاني الأسماء الحسنى والصفات العليا ، وهو الذي ينكره المشركون ويحتج الرب سبحانه وتعالى عليهم بتوحيدهم ربوبيته على توحيد ألوهيته

And upon this consideration which we have corroborated (the real meaning of) al-ilaah and that He is the adored, beloved one due to all the qualities of perfection having united in Him, then "Allaah" is the name that brings together all of the meanings of the beautiful names and the lofty attributes, and this is what was rejected by the Mushriks and the Lord, the Sublime and Exalted, argued by their [affirmation of] tawhid in His Rububiyyah for the tawhid in His Uluhiyyah...

Then he cites Surah al-An'aam (6:59-60) as an example of the evidences in the Qur'an through which Allaah argues for His Uluhiyyah through illustrating His Rububiyyah, and then he says:

وبالجملة فهو تعالى يحتج على منكري الإلهية بإثباتهم الربوبية

And in short, He, the Exalted, argues against the deniers of His Uluhiyyah by [mentioning] their affirmation of His Rububiyyah...

Then al-Maqrizi makes an amazing point regarding Surah al-Nas, the last surah in the Qur'an in that Allaah mentions three beautiful names, al-Rabb (Lord), al-Malik (Master) and al-Ilah (Deity) in that order, and that there is a gradation involved in that al-Rabb comprises an affirmation that He is their creator and originator. However, this on its own is not sufficient. Thereafter He mentioned Himself as the Malik al-Nas (Master, Owner of mankind), and the master is one who command and prohibits. This is indicative that the command (al-amr) belongs to Him. So far with these two names we have al-khalq and al-amr, and this is what occurs in Surah al-A'raaf, "Verily to Him belongs al-khalq (creating) and al-amr (commanding)" (7:54). And then He referred to Himself as Ilaah al-Nas (Deity of mankind). And this indicates He is the one loved, adored, venerated and worshipped by them. And thus, this completes the meaning of tawhid in this surah.

After this he mentions that none one affirmed another creator besides Allaah aside from the Magian pagans (dualists), and indicates the falsehood of their view. Then he proceeds to mention the Shirk that occurred in the various nations and so he says:

وشرك الأمم كله نوعان : شرك في الإلهية ، وشرك في الربوبية. فالشرك في الإلهية والعبادة هو الغالب على أهل الإشراك ، وهو شرك عباد الأصنام وعباد الملائكة وعباد الجن وعباد المشايخ الصالحين الأحياء والأموات الذين قالوا {مَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللَّهِ زُلْفَى} ويشفعوا لنا عنده ، وينالنا بسبب قربهم من الله وكرامته لهم قرب وكرامة ، كما هو المعهود في الدنيا من حصول الكرامة والزلفى لمن يخدم أعوان الملك وأقاربه وخاصته . والكتب الإلهية كلها من أولها إلى آخرها تبطل هذا المذهب وترده وتقبح أهله وتنص على أنهم أعداء الله تعالى ، وجميع الرسل صلوات الله عليهم متفقون على ذلك من أولهم إلى آخرهم ، وما أهلك الله تعالى من الأمم إلا بسبب هذا الشرك ومن أجله

The polytheism of the various nations is of two types: Shirk in Ilaahiyyah and Shirk in Rububiyyah.

The Shirk in Ilaahiyyah and Ibaadah (worship) is the predominant one amongst the people of polytheism. This is the Shirk of the worshippers of the idols, and worshippers of the Angels, and worshippers of the Jinn, and the worshippers of the Shaykhs and the righteous, both the living and the dead. These are the ones who said, "We do not worship them except that they may bring us closer to Allaah" (39:3), and that they may intercede for us with Allaah, and that due to their nearness to Allaah and His honouring of them, we may receive nearness and honour, just as it takes place in the [life of the] world, when nearnness and nobility is attained by the one who serves the helpers of the king, and his relatives and his special associates.

All of the Divine Books, from their very first to their last, came to invalidate this madhhab (doctrine), to refute it, and to revile it's people and to textually state that they are the enemies of Allaah, the Exalted. And all of the Messengers (salawaat of Allaah be upon them all) are united upon that, the first of them to the last of them. And Allaah, the Exalted, never destroyed any of the nations except due to this Shirk, and because of it.

Now that's one hardcore 'Wahhabi' for you from the ninth century hijrah, two and half centuries before Shaykh Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab. This establishes Ahmad Dahlan and his likes to be dishonest followers of desires. Then al-Maqrizi explains the error of these people in that they give such love and devotion (worship) to others besides Allaah that is due only to Allaah, so they set up rivals and equals to Him. After this reiterates:

ومعلوم قطعا أن هذه التسوية لم تكن بينهم وبين الله في كونه ربهم وخالقهم ، فإنهم كانوا كما أخبر الله عنهم مقرين بأن الله تعالى وحده هو ربهم وخالقهم وأن الأرض ومن فيها لله وحده وأنه رب السماوات السبع ورب العرش العظيم ، وأنه سبحانه وتعالى هو الذي بيده ملكوت كل شيء وهو يجير ولا يجار عليه

And it is known with absolute certainty that this equivocation of theirs was not between them (the other deities) and Allaah in the issue of His being their Lord and Creator, for they, as Allaah has informed about them, used to affirm that Allaah alone, the Exalted, is their Lord and Creator and that the earth and whatever is within it belongs to Allaah alone and that He is the Lord of the seven heavens and the Lord of the Mighty Throne, and that He, the Sublime and Exalted, is the one in whose hand is the dominion of everything, and that He is the one who grants protection, but not can grant protection from Him...

After this he states that the proof for the invalidation of this Shirk is greater than can be enumerated in the revealed texts. Then he mentions the other Shirk, the Shirk in Rububiyyah, and he mentions that those who fell into it were the Magian pagans (dualists) and likewise the Philosophers. We can now make some notes on what has preceded:

Summary Notes

Al-Maqrizi who died in 845H, more than two and a half centuries before Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhaab was born, and who was a Shafi'ite, having studied under al-Siraj al-Balqini, and al-Haythami and Zayn al-Din al-Iraqi, has preceded Shaykh Ibn Abd al-Wahhaab in clarifying the tawhid of the Messengers in the precise manner outlined.

He explained that Allaah is the Rabb, Malik and Ilaah, and that Rububiyyah is the tawhid of Allaah's actions (of creating, owning, providing etc.), and that Uluhiyyah is the tawhid of the servants actions (in worship of their Lord). He explained that the Mushriks never rejected the Rububiyyah of Allaah. Rather, they showed rejection towards the tawhid of Uluhiyyah and Mahabbah. He said that it was this tawhid that distinguished between the believer (in Tawhid) and the pagans.

He explained that the crux of the matter is that Allah is the ilaah (deity in truth) because His name, Allaah, combines and represents all the beautiful names and perfect attributes, which necessitate only He is worshipped alone. However, it is as if the pagans reject and deny this Ilaahiyyah of Allaah, and thus Allaah argues against them through their acknowledgement of His Rububiyyah. Hence, the one who calls upon others besides Allaah, such as the saints and righteous dead and prophets, and solicits their intercession from them, this person is in essence rejecting that Allaah is al-Shafee' (owner of all intercession), and the one who responds to the supplicant when he supplicates, and other such names and attributes which are applicable. Because if he truly believed in them, he would have turned only to Allaah.

He explains that the Shirk of all nations is of two types, Shirk in Uluhiyyah and Shirk in Rububiyyah. He explains that those who worship the Angels, Prophets, the Shaykhs and the Righteous all fall into the Shirk of Uluhiyyah, and he explained their justifiation, which is that they claimed that they are simply seeking nearness to Allaah and to win their intercession. These are the very same matters explained by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d. 606H), more than two and a half centuries before al-Maqrizi, and almost six centuries before Ibn Abd al-Wahhaab (see this article).

Then he emphasized that when they made these other deities equal to Allaah it was certainly not in respect to Rububiyyah, because they affirmed all of that without any question.

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